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Title – The Message   Preface   Arabian Peninsula the Cradle of Islamic Culture   Arabia before Islam   Conditions of Roman and Iranian Empires   Ancestors of the Prophet   Birth of the Prophet   Childhood of the Prophet   Rejoining the Family   Period of Youth   From Shepherd to Merchant   From Marriage up to Prophethood   The First Manifestation of Reality   The First Revelation   Who were the First Persons to Embrace Islam?   Cessation of revelation   General Invitation   Judgement of Quraysh about the Holy Qur’an   The First Migration   Rusty Weapons   The Fiction of Gharaniq   Economic Blockade   Death of Abu Talib   Me’raj – The Heavenly Ascension   Journey to Ta’if   The Agreement of Aqabah   The Event of Migration   The Events of the First Year of Migration   Some Events of the First and Second years of Migration   The Events of the Second Year of Migration   Change of Qiblah   The Battle of Badr   Dangerous Designs of the Jews   The Events of the Third Year of Migration   The Events of the Third and Fourth years of Migration   The Jews Quit the Zone of Islam   The Events of the Fourth Year of Migration   The Events of the Fifth Year Of Migration   The Battle of Ahzab   The Last Stage of Mischief   The Events of the Fifth and Sixth years of Migration   The events of the Sixth Year of Migration   A Religious and Political Journey   The Events of the Seventh Year of Migration   Fort of Khayber the Centre of Danger   The Story of Fadak   The Lapsed ‘Umrah   The Events of the Eighth Year of Migration   The Battle of Zatus Salasil   The Conquest of Makkah   The Battle of Hunayn   The Battle of Ta’if   The Famous Panegyric of Ka’b Bin Zuhayr   The Events of the Ninth Year of Migration   The Battle of Tabuk   The Deputation of Thaqif goes to Madina   The Prophet Mourning for his Son   Eradication of Idol-Worship in Arabia   Representatives of Najran in Madina   The Events of the Tenth Year of Migration   The Farewell Hajj   Islam is completed by the Appointment of Successor   The Events of the Eleventh Year of Migration   A Will which was not written   The Last Hours of the Prophet  


Bibliography

  1. Works of Allama Iqbal

(A) Works in Prose

Bedil in the Light of Bergson, ed. and annotated by Dr. Tehsin Firaqi, Lahore, 1988.The Development of Metaphysics in Persia (a contribution to the history of Muslim philosophy), London, 1908. Reprinted Lahore, 1954, 1959, 1964.

Ilm al-Iqtisad, Lahore, 1903. Rep. Karachi, 1962.

Six Lectures on the Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, Lahore, 1930. 2nd edn., with revision at about six places and quite a few proof-reading corrections and changes, and more importantly with the addition of Lecture: ‘Is Religion Possible?’ and an Index, published under the title: The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, London, 1934. Reprinted Lahore, 1944, many later edns. Reprinted Delhi, 1974. French trans. by de Eva Meyerovitch: Reconstruire la pensa e religieuse de l’Islam, Paris, 1955. Arabic trans. by ‘Abbas Mahmad: Tajdad al-Tafkar al-Dan fi’l-Islam, Cairo, 1955. Urdu trans. by Sayyid Nadhar Niyaza: Tashkal-i Jadad Ilahayat-i Islamayah, Lahore, 1958. Persian trans. by Ahmad Aram, Ihya-i Fikr-i Din dar Islam, Tehran, 1967. Also translated at least in five more languages.

The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, ed. and annotated by M. Saeed Sheikh, Lahore, 1986, reprinted Lahore, 1989; Spanish trans. by Jose Esteban Calderon: La Reconstruction del Pensamiento Religioso en el Islam, Lahore 1989; Stray Reflections, A Note-Book of Allama Iqbal (1910), ed. by Javid Iqbal, Lahore, 1961.

Tarakh-i Tasawwuf (1916), ed. by Sabir Kalurva, Lahore, 1985.

(B) Major Poetical Works (With English Translation)

Asrar-i Khuda trans. by R. A. Nicholson: The Secrets of the Self, London, 1920; rev. edn., Lahore, 1940, many later edns.

Bal-i Jibral (1935), trans. of the earlier two Parts (16 + 61 Ghazals) by Syed Akbar Ali Shah: Gabriel’s Wing, Islamabad, 1979; trans. of six quatrains and of twenty-three poems from the last part (as also of some poems from other works) by V. G. Kiernan: Poems from Iqbal, London, 1955 (Part II).

Javad Namah (1932), trans. by Shaikh Mahmud Ahmad: The Pilgrimage of Eternity, Lahore, 1961, 1977; also by Arthur J. Arberry: Javid-Nama, London, 1966; trans. of the concluding section: Khitab ba Javad by B. A. Dar: Address to Javid, Karachi, 1971.

Payam-i Mashriq (1923), trans. by M. Hadi Hussain: A Message from the East, Lahore, 1977.

Rumaz-i Bekhuda, trans. by Arthur H. Arberry: The Mysteries of Selflessness, London, 1953.

Zabar-i ‘Ajam (1927), trans. by Arthur J. Arberry: Persian Psalms, Lahore, 1948; trans. of the all too important mathnawa Gulshan-i Raz-i Jadad (New Garden of Mystery) as well as Bandaga Namah (Book of Servitude), the closing parts of this work, by Bashir Ahmad Dar, Lahore, 1964; also by M. Hadi Hussain: The New Rose Garden of Mystery and the Book of Slaves, Lahore, 1969.

Complete poetical works in Persian and Urdu published in 2 vols. Kulliyat-i Iqbal: Farisa & Kulliyat-i Iqbal: Urdu, Lahore, 1973.

(C) Addresses, Articles, Letters, etc.

(i) Compilations in English

Discourses of Iqbal, ed. by Shahid Hussain Razzaqi, Lahore, 1979.

Iqbal by Atiya Begum, Bombay, 1947.

Letters and Writings of Iqbal, ed. by B. A. Dar, Karachi, 1967.

Letters of Iqbal, ed. by Bashir Ahmad Dar, Lahore, 1978.

Letters of Iqbal to Jinnah, with a Foreword by (Quaid-i-Azam) M. A. Jinnah, Lahore, 1942.

Mementos of Iqbal, compiled by Rahim Bakhsh Shaheen, Lahore, n.d.

Speeches, Writings and Statements of Iqbal ed. by Latif Ahmad Sherwani (3rd rev. and enlarged edn.), Lahore, 1977.

Thoughts and Reflections of Iqbal, ed. by Syed Abdul Vahid, Lahore, 1964.

(ii) Major Compilations in Urdu

Anwar-i Iqbal, ed. by Bashir Ahmad Dar, Karachi, 1967.

Guftar-i Iqbal, ed. by M. Rafaq Afaal, Lahore, 1969.

Iqbalnamah (Majma’ah-i Makatab-i Iqbal), ed. by Shaikh ‘Ata Ullah, 2 Parts, Lahore, 1945, 1951.

Khutat-i Iqbal, ed. and annotated by Rafa’-ud-Dan Hashima, Lahore, 1976.

Maqalat-i Iqbal, ed. by Sayyid ‘Abdul Vahid Mu’ana, Lahore, 1963.

Rah-i Makatab-i Iqbal, ed. by M. ‘Abdullah Quraisha, Lahore, 1977 (a useful compendium of 1233 letters arranged chronologically).

(II) SECONDARY WORKS AND ARTICLES REFERRED

TO IN NOTES AND TEXT

(A) Works

‘Abd al-Qadir, ‘Ala Hasan, Nazarah ‘ammah fi Tarakh al-Fiqh al-Islama, Cairo, 1942.

‘Abd al-Quddas Gangoha, Lata’if-i Quddasa, ed. by Shaikh Rukn al-Dan, Delhi, 1311 A. H.

‘Abd al-Salam Khurshad, Dr, Sargudhasht-i Iqbal, Lahore, 1977.

‘Abdullah Anwar Beg, The Poet of the East, Lahore, 1939.

‘Abdullah Chaghata‘a, Dr, Iqbal ki Suhbat Men, Lahore, 1977.

‘Aba Dawad, Sulaiman b. al-Ash’ath al-Sijistana, Kitab al-Sunan, 4 vols. in 2, Cairo, 1935; English trans. by Ahmad Hasan, Sunan ‘Aba Dawad, 3 vols., Lahore, 1984.

Aba Rashad Sa‘ad b. Muhammad b. Sa‘ad al-Naisabara, Kitab al-Masa’il fi’l-Khilaf bain Basriyyan wa’l-Baghdadiyyan ed. and trans. into German by Arthur Biram: Die atomistische Substanzenlehre aus dem Buch der Streitfragen Basrensern und Baghdadensern, Leyden, 1902.

Aghnides, Nicolas P., Mohammedan Theories of Finance (with an Introduction to Mohammedan Law and a Bibliography), New York, 1916; rep. 1969.

Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, 6 vols., Beirut, n.d.

Ahmad Hasan, The Doctrine of Ijma‘ in Islam, Islamabad, 1976.

Ahmad Nabi Khan, Dr (ed.), Relics of Allama Iqbal (Catalogue), Islamabad, Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Government of Pakistan, 1982.

Ahmad Sirhinda, Shaikh, Maktabat-i Imam-i Rabbana, Vol. I, Lahore, n.d.

‘Ain al-Qudat Hamadana, Ghayat al-Imkan fi Dirayat al-Makan, ed. by Raham Farmanish in his compilation Ahwal-o-Athar ‘Ain al-Qudat, Tehran, 1338(S); Eng. trans. based on collation with Rampur Library MS by A. H. Kamali, Karachi, 1971.

Alexander, Samuel, Space, Time and Deity (The Gifford Lectures at Glasgow, 1916-1918), 2 Vols., London, 1920.

al-Amida, Saif al-Dan, Al-Ihkam fi Uaal al Aakam, 4 Vols., Beirut, 1400/1980.

Arberry, A. J. (tr.) Muslim Saints and Mystics: Episodes from the Tadhkirat al-Auliya’ (Memorial of the Saints) by Farad al-Dan al- ‘Aaǫr, London, 1979.

—, Revelation and Reason in Islam (The Forwood Lectures for 1956), London, 1957.

Asad, Muhammad, The Message of the Qur’an, Gibralter, 1980.

al-Ash‘ara, Abu’l-Hasan ‘Alab. Isma’al, Maqalat al-Islamiyan, ed. by Muhammad Muhy al-Dan ‘Abd al-Hamad, 2 vols., Cairo, 1369/1950.

Ashnawi`, Shaikh Taj al-Dan Mahmad b. Khudadad, Ghayat al-Imkan fi Ma’rifat al-Zaman wa’l-Makan, ed. by Nadhr Sabira, Campbellpur, 1401 A.H.

Ashraf ‘Ala Thanawa, Maulana, Al-Halat al-Najizah lil-Halalat al-’ajizah, Deoband, 1351 (1931).

Atiyeh, George N., Al-Kindi: The Philosopher of the Arabs, Rawalpindi, 1966.

‘Aaǫr, Farad al-Dan, Manaiq al-aair, Isfahan, 1334(S).

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al-Baqillana, Aba Bakr Muhammad b. al-Tayyib, Kitab al-Tamhad, ed. by Richard J. McCarthy, Beyrouth, 1957.

Barstrow, Robbins Wolcott (ed.), The Macdonald Presentation Volume, Princeton, 1933.

Bergson, Henri Louis, Creative Evolution, trans. by Arthur Mitchell, London, 1911.

—, Matter and Memory, trans. by Nancy Margaret Paul & W. Scott Palmer (pseud), London, 1911.

—, Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness, trans. by F. L. Pogson, London, 1910.

Berkes, Niyazi, The Development of Secularism in Turkey, Montreal, 1964.

al-Barana, Aba Raihan, Al-Qanan al-Mas‘ada, vol. I, Hyderabad (Deccan), 1373/1954.

Al-Barana Commemoration Volume (A. H. 362-A.H. 1362), Calcutta, Iran Society, 1951.

Blavatsky, Helena Petrovna, The Secret Doctrine: The Synthesis of Science, Religion and Philosophy, 6 vols., Adyar (Madras), 1971.

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al-Bukhara, Aba ‘Abd Allah Muhammad b. Isma’al, aaaaa al-Bukhara, Arabic text with Eng. trans. by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, 9 vols., Lahore, 1979.

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—, Islamic Occasionalism and Its Critique by Averroes and Aquinas, London, 1958.

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—, Al-Mustasfamin ‘Ilm al-Uaal, 2 vols., Cairo, 1937.

—, Al-Qistas al-Mustaqam, trans. with Intro. and Notes by D. P. Brewster: The Just Balance, Lahore, 1978.

—, Tahafut al-Falasifah, trans. by Sabih Ahmad Kamali: Incoherence of the Philosophers, Lahore, 1958.

Ghulam Mustafa Khan, Iqbal aur Qur’an, Lahore, 1977.

Gibb, H. A. R., Modern Trends in Islam (The Haskell Lectures in Comparative Religion, 1945), New York, 1947, reprint 1978.

—, & J. H. Kramers (eds), Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam, Leiden & London, 1953.

Gillispie, Charles Coulston (ed.), Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 16 vols., New York, 1970-80.

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von, Conversation of Goethe with Eckermann and Soret, trans. by John Oxenford, London, 1901.

Ga kalp, Ziya, Ziya Ga kalp ka lliyati’i: Sa rler ve halk masallari, ed. by F. A. Tansel, Ankara, 1952.

—,Turkish Nationalism and Western Civilization: Selected Essays of Ziya Ga kalp, trans. & ed. by Niyazi Berkes, London & New York, 1959.

Goldziher, Ignaz, Muhammadanische Studien, 2 vols., (1889-90), Hildsheim, 1961; trans. by C. R. Barber & S. M. Stern, Muslim Studies, 2 vols., London, vol. I: 1967, vol. II: 1971.

—,The Zahiras: Their Doctrine and Their History, trans. by Wolfgang Behn, Leiden, 1971.

Gunn, J. Alexander, The Problem of Time: A Historical and Critical Study, London, 1929.

Gwatkin, H. M. & J. P. Whitney (eds.), The Cambridge Medieval History, 2 vols., London, 1911, 1913.

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Haldane, Viscount Richard Burdon, The Reign of Relativity, London, 1921.

al-Hallaj, Husain b. Mansar, Kitab al-Tawasin, Arabic text and Persian version of Baqla, ed. by Louis Massignon, Paris, 1913; French translation by L. Massignon in La passion d’al-aallaj, II, 830-93; Eng. trans. by Aisha Abd Ar-Rahman, Berkeley & London, 1974; also in Gilani Kamran: Ana al-Haqq Reconsidered, Lahore, 1398 A. H., pp. 55-108.

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Hassan, Riffat, The Sword and the Sceptre (A collection of writings on Iqbal), Lahore, 1977.

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—, Al-Taqrab li-Hadd al-Mantiq, ed. by Dr Ihsan Abbas (from the only MS 6814, al-Maktabat al-Ahmadayah, Tunis), Beirut, 1959.

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—, Kitab Ta’wal Mukhtalif al-Hadath, ed. by Faraj Allah Zaki`al-Kurdi`, et. al., Cairo, 1326 A.H.

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(B) Articles

Arendonk, C. van, ‘Ibn Hazm’, The Encyclopaedia of Islam (First edition), II, 384-86.

Arnaldez, Roger, & A. Z. Iskander, ‘Ibn Rushd’, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, XII, 1-9.

Arnheim, R., ‘Gestalt’, Encyclopedia of Psychology, II, 58-60.

Barker, Henry, ‘Berkeley’, section: ‘Metaphysics of Immaterialism’, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, II, 526b-528b.

Bassett, R., ‘Ibn Tumart’, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, II, 425-27; also Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam, pp. 152-54.

Bausani, A., ‘Concept of Time in the Religious Philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal’, Die Welt des Islams, N. S., III (1954), 158-86.

Beare, Mary, ‘Faust’ in S. H. Steinberg (ed.), Cassell’s Encyclopaedia of Literature, I, 217-19.

de Boer, T. J., ‘Atomic Theory (Muhammadan)’, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, II, 202b-203b.

Bohr, Niels, ‘Atom’, Encyclopaedia Britannica, II, 642-47.

Broad, C. D., ‘Time’ Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, XII, 334a-345a.

Browne, E. G., ‘Pan– Islamism’ in F. Kirkpatrick (ed.), Lectures on the History of the Nineteenth Century.

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Carr, H. Wildon, ‘The Idealistic Interpretation of Einstein’s Theory’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, N. S., XXII (1921-22), 123-27.

Carra de Vaux, B., ‘Averroes, Averroism’, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, II, 264-66; ‘Ibn Rushd,’ The Encyclopaedia of Islam, II, 410-13.

Dar, Bashar Ahmad, ‘Iqbal Aur Mas’alah-i Zaman-o-Makan,’ in Salim Akhtar (ed.) Fikr-i-Iqbal ke Munawwar Goshay (Lahore, 1977), pp. 141-51.

Deussen, Paul, ‘Atman’, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, II, 195b-197b.

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Ehsan Elahie, Rana M. N., ‘Iqbal on the Freedom of Ijtihad,’ Oriental College Magazine (Allama Iqbal Centenary Number), LIII (1977), 295-330. Contains facsimiles of Allama Iqbal’s recently discovered four letters to Professor Maulavi Muhammad Shafa’ from 13 March 1924 to 1 May 1924.

Emmet, Dorothy M., ‘Alexander, Samuel’, The Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, I, 69-73.

Forster, E. M., ‘The Secrets of the Self (Asrar-i-Khudi)’, The Athenaeum (10 December 1920), pp. 803-04; a book review reproduced in Dr Riffat Hasan (ed.), The Sword and the Sceptre, pp. 277-85.

Frank, Philipp, ‘Philosophical Interpretations and Misinterpretations of the Theory of Relativity’, in Herbert Feigel & May Brodbeck (ed.), Readings in the Philosophy of Science, pp. 212-31.

Gilman, Richard C., ‘Hocking, William Ernest’, Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, IV, 46-47.

Goldziher, Ignaz, ‘Dawad B. ‘Ala B. Khalf’, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, V, 405-06 ‘Ibn Hazm’, ibid., VII, 70-72.

—, ‘Materialien zur Kenntniss der Almohadenbewegung’, Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenla ndischen Gesellschaft, XLI (1887), 30-140.

Haldane, J.S., ‘Are Physical, Biological and Psychological Categories Irreducible?’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, XVIII (1917-18), 419-36.

Halperin, D.J., ‘The Ibn Sayya`d Traditions and the Legend of al-Dajjal,’ Journal of the American Oriental Society, XCII/ii (1976), 213-25.

Hanney, A. Howard (ed.), ‘Abstract of the Minutes of the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society for the Fifty-Fourth Session,’ Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, N.S., XXIII (1932-33), 341-43 (contains a brief report about Allama Iqbal’s lecture: ‘Is Religion Possible?’ on 5 December 1932).

Haque, Serajul, ‘Ibn Taimiyya’s Conception of Analogy and Consensus’, Islamic Culture, XVII (1943), 77-87; ‘Ibn Taimiyyah’ in M. M. Sharif (ed.), A History of Muslim Philosophy, II, 796-819.

Hashima, Rafa’al-Dan, ‘Allamah ke Chand Ghair-Mudawwan Khuaaa’, Iqbal Review, XXIII/iv (Jan. 1983), 41-59 (reproduces Allama Iqbal’s letter dated 6 May 1937 addressed to Professor Dr Syed Zafarul Hasan, which indicates that Allama had gathered ‘material’ for his proposed Rhodes Memorial Lectures on ‘Space and Time in Muslim Thought’).

Haydar Ali Dirioz, ‘Tevfik Fikret’, Journal of the Regional Cultural Institute, I/4 (Autumn 1968), 12-15.

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Heisenberg, W., ‘a ber den anschaulischen Inhalt der quanten theoretischen Kinematik und Mechanik’, Zeitschrift fa r Physik, XLIII (1927), 172-98.

Hopkins, J. F. P., ‘Ibn Tumart’, The Encyclopaedia of Islam (New edition), III, 958-60.

Hourani, G. F., ‘The Dialogue Between Al-Ghazzali and the Philosophers on the Origin of the World’, The Muslim World, XLVIII/iii and iv (1958), 183-91, 308-14.

Hussain, Riaz, ‘1910 men Dunya-i Islam ke Halat (‘Political Conditions of the Islamic World in 1910)’, Iqbal Review, XIX/2 (July 1978), 85-90 (focussed on Allama Iqbal’s letter dated 22 August 1910 addressed to the Editor, Paisa Akhbar – an Urdu daily of Lahore).

Imtiyaz ‘Ala Khan ‘Arsha, M., ‘Zaman-o Makan ka Bahth ke Muta’allaq ‘Allamah Iqbal ka aik Ma’akhadh: ‘Iraqaya Ashnawa’, Iqbal Centenary Papers Presented at the International Congress on Allama Mohammad Iqbal (2-8 December 1977), vol. IV (Papers in Urdu), pp. 1-10.

Jacobi, Hermann, ‘Atomic Theory (Indian)’, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, II, 199a-202b.

Kazim, M. A., ‘Al-Barana and Trignometry’, Al-Barana Commemoration Volume, pp. 161-70.

Kennedy, E. S., ‘Al-Barana Aba Raihan’, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, II, 147-68 (bases al-Barana’s ‘theory of function’ on his ‘Treatise on Shadows’).

Koffka, K., ‘Gestalt’, Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, VI, 642-46.

Kofler, Hans, ‘Handbuch des islamischen Staats und Verwaltungsrechtes von Badr-ad-Din ibn Gama’ah. Herausgegeben, abersetzt und mit Anmerkungen versehen’, Islamics VI (1934), 349-414, VII (1935), 1-64 and Schla ssheft (1938), 18-129 (Arabic text with German trans. of Ibn Jama’ah’s Tahrar al-Ahkam fi Tadbar Ahl al-Islam).

Kroll, Wilhelm, ‘Atomic Theory (Greek)’, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, II, 197a-99a.

Laoust, H, ‘Ibn Taimayya’, The Encyclopaedia of Islam (New edition), III, 951-55.

McCarthy, R. J., ‘Al-Bakillana,’ The Encyclopaedia of Islam (New edition), I, 958-59.

Macdonald, D.B., ‘Continuous Re-creation and Atomic Time in Moslem Scholastic Theology’, Isis, IX (1927), 326-44; reprinted in The Moslem World, XVIII/i (Jan. 1928), 6-28.

—, ‘Ijtihad,’ The Encyclopaedia of Islam, II, 448-49; reproduced in the New edition, III, 1026-27.

McTaggert, J. M. E., ‘The Unreality of Time’, Mind, New Series, XVII (October 1908), 457-74.

Margoliouth, D. S., ‘Al-Mahda’, Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam, pp. 310-13.

Marmura, Michael E., ‘Ghazala’s Attitude to the Secular Sciences and Logic’, in George F. Hourani (ed.), Essays on Islamic Philosophy and Science, pp. 100-11.

—, ‘Soul: Islamic Concepts’, The Encyclopedia of Religion, XIII, 460-65.

Mas‘ad, Khalid, ‘Khutubati Iqbal men Ijtihad ki Ta’rif: Ijtihad ka Tarakha Pas-i Manzar,’ Fikr-o-Nazar, XV/vii-viii, (Islamabad, Jan., Feb. 1978), 31-53.

Namus, Dr M. S., ‘Ibn al-Haitham: The Greatest Physicist of Islam’, in Hakim Mohammad Said (ed.), Ibn Haitham: Proceedings of the Celebrations of 1000th Anniversary (1-10 Nov. 1969, Karachi), pp. 124-34.

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, ‘Shihab al-Dan Suhrawarda Maqtal’ in M. M. Sharif (ed.), A History of Muslim Philosophy, I, 372-98.

—, ‘Al-aasa Nasar al-Dan’, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, XIII, 508-14 (also gives an assessment of al-Tu`si`’s work on parallel postulate).

Nunn, T. Percy, ‘The Idealistic Interpretation of Einstein’s Theory’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, New Series, XXII (1921-22), 127-30.

Obermann, J., ‘Political Theology in Early Islam, Hasan al-Basri’s Treatise on Qadar’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, LV (1935), 138-62.

Peyser, C. S., ‘Kohler, Wolfgang (1887-1967),’ Encyclopedia of Psychology, II, 271.

Planck, Wilhelm, ‘Reformation’, An Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. Vergilius Ferm, pp. 640-42.

Poynting, J. Henry, ‘Atomic Theory (Medieval and Modern)’, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, II, 203b-210b.

Plessner, M., ‘Al-Jahiz’, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, VII, 63-65 (focusses on Kitab al-Hayawan).

Qureshi, I. H., ‘Historiography’, in M. M. Sharif (ed.), A History of Muslim Philosophy, II, 1195-1219.

Reyburn, ‘Idealism and the Reality of Time’, Mind, October 1913, pp. 493-508.

Reichenbach, Hans, ‘The Philosophical Significance of the Theory of Relativity’, in H. Feigel & M. Brodbeck (eds.), Readings in the Philosophy of Science, pp. 195-211; also in P. A. Schilpp (ed.), Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, pp. 287-311.

Russell, Bertrand, ‘Relativity, Philosophical Consequences’, Encyclopaedia Britannica (1953), XIX, 98d-100a.

Sabra, A. I., ‘Ibn al-Haytham’, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, VI, 189-210. (Also gives an exhaustive bibliography including up-to-date information about MSS of Kitab al-Manazir).

Schimmel, A., ‘Some Thoughts About the Future Study of Iqbal’, Iqbal (Iqbal Number), XXIV/4 (October 1977), 1-8.

Sharif, M. M., ‘Influence of Muslim Thought on the West’, Section D: ‘Philosophical Influence from Descartes to Kant’, idem (ed.), A History of Muslim Philosophy, II, 1381-87.

Sheikh, M. Saeed, ‘Allama Iqbal’s Interest in the Sciences’ (Iqbal Memorial Lecture, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 1988), Iqbal Review, XXX/i (April-June 1989), 31-43.

—, ‘Al-Ghazali: Metaphysics’, section D: ‘Attack on the Philosophers’, in M. M. Sharif (ed.) A History of Muslim Philosophy, I, 592-616.

—, ‘Al-Ghazali: Mysticism’, ibid., I, 617-24.

—, ‘Philosophy of Man’ (General Presidential Address, Pakistan Philosophical Congress, 1987), Iqbal Review, XXIX/i; (April-June, 1988), 3-16.

Siddiqi, Dr M. Razi-ud-Din, ‘Iqbal’s Conception of Time and Space’, Iqbal As A Thinker, pp. 1-40.

—, ‘Mathematics and Astronomy’, in M. M. Sharif (ed.), A History of Muslim Philosophy, II, 1277-92.

Smuts, J. C., ‘Holism’, Encyclopaedia Britannica, XI, 640c-644a.

Stern, S. M., ‘Ibn al-Samh’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1956, pp. 31-44.

Syrier, Miya, ‘Ibn Khaldun and Mysticism’, Islamic Culture, XXI/ii, (1947), 264-302.

Taylor, Alfred Edward, ‘Continuity’, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, IV, 89b-98a (inter alia Zeno of Elia’s notion, 91-92 and Cantor’s theory, 96b-98a).

Thomson, W., ‘Kharijitism and the Kharijites’ in R. W. Barstrow (ed.), The Macdonald Presentation Volume, pp. 371-89.

Vernet, Juan, ‘Mathematics, Astronomy, Optics’, in J. Schacht (ed.), The Legacy of Islam, pp. 461-89.

Watt, W. Montgomery, ‘The Political Attitudes of the Mu’tazilah’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1962, pp. 38-54.

Yazdani, Dr Khwajah Hamad, ‘Risalah dar Zaman-o-Makan’, Al-Ma‘arif, XVII/7 (Lahore, July 1984), 31-42, 56 (Urdu trans. of Khwaja Muhammad Parsa’s tractate on space and time based on the unique MS 707, Majama’ Tal’at, Dar al-Kutub, Cairo).

Zedler, B. H., ‘Averroes and Immortality’, New Scholasticism, 1954, pp. 436-53.

 

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