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Rabiul Awal 24 Wednesday Hijrah 1439
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Title – The Message   Preface   Arabian Peninsula the Cradle of Islamic Culture   Arabia before Islam   Conditions of Roman and Iranian Empires   Ancestors of the Prophet   Birth of the Prophet   Childhood of the Prophet   Rejoining the Family   Period of Youth   From Shepherd to Merchant   From Marriage up to Prophethood   The First Manifestation of Reality   The First Revelation   Who were the First Persons to Embrace Islam?   Cessation of revelation   General Invitation   Judgement of Quraysh about the Holy Qur’an   The First Migration   Rusty Weapons   The Fiction of Gharaniq   Economic Blockade   Death of Abu Talib   Me’raj – The Heavenly Ascension   Journey to Ta’if   The Agreement of Aqabah   The Event of Migration   The Events of the First Year of Migration   Some Events of the First and Second years of Migration   The Events of the Second Year of Migration   Change of Qiblah   The Battle of Badr   Dangerous Designs of the Jews   The Events of the Third Year of Migration   The Events of the Third and Fourth years of Migration   The Jews Quit the Zone of Islam   The Events of the Fourth Year of Migration   The Events of the Fifth Year Of Migration   The Battle of Ahzab   The Last Stage of Mischief   The Events of the Fifth and Sixth years of Migration   The events of the Sixth Year of Migration   A Religious and Political Journey   The Events of the Seventh Year of Migration   Fort of Khayber the Centre of Danger   The Story of Fadak   The Lapsed ‘Umrah   The Events of the Eighth Year of Migration   The Battle of Zatus Salasil   The Conquest of Makkah   The Battle of Hunayn   The Battle of Ta’if   The Famous Panegyric of Ka’b Bin Zuhayr   The Events of the Ninth Year of Migration   The Battle of Tabuk   The Deputation of Thaqif goes to Madina   The Prophet Mourning for his Son   Eradication of Idol-Worship in Arabia   Representatives of Najran in Madina   The Events of the Tenth Year of Migration   The Farewell Hajj   Islam is completed by the Appointment of Successor   The Events of the Eleventh Year of Migration   A Will which was not written   The Last Hours of the Prophet  

The Message

By Ayatullah Ja'far Subhani

Contents

Chapter# /Title

1: Title – The Message
2: Preface
3: Arabian Peninsula the Cradle of Islamic Culture
4: Arabia before Islam
5: Conditions of Roman and Iranian Empires
6: Ancestors of the Prophet
7: Birth of the Prophet
8: Childhood of the Prophet
9: Rejoining the Family
10: Period of Youth
11: From Shepherd to Merchant
12: From Marriage up to Prophethood
13: The First Manifestation of Reality
14: The First Revelation
15: Who were the First Persons to Embrace Islam?
16: Cessation of revelation
17: General Invitation
18: Judgement of Quraysh about the Holy Qur’an
19: The First Migration
20: Rusty Weapons
21: The Fiction of Gharaniq
22: Economic Blockade
23: Death of Abu Talib
24: Me’raj – The Heavenly Ascension
25: Journey to Ta’if
26: The Agreement of Aqabah
27: The Event of Migration
28: The Events of the First Year of Migration
29: Some Events of the First and Second years of Migration
30: The Events of the Second Year of Migration
31: Change of Qiblah
32: The Battle of Badr
33: Dangerous Designs of the Jews
34: The Events of the Third Year of Migration
35: The Events of the Third and Fourth years of Migration
36: The Jews Quit the Zone of Islam
37: The Events of the Fourth Year of Migration
38: The Events of the Fifth Year Of Migration
39: The Battle of Ahzab
40: The Last Stage of Mischief
41: The Events of the Fifth and Sixth years of Migration
42: The events of the Sixth Year of Migration
43: A Religious and Political Journey
44: The Events of the Seventh Year of Migration
45: Fort of Khayber the Centre of Danger
46: The Story of Fadak
47: The Lapsed ‘Umrah
48: The Events of the Eighth Year of Migration
49: The Battle of Zatus Salasil
50: The Conquest of Makkah
51: The Battle of Hunayn
52: The Battle of Ta’if
53: The Famous Panegyric of Ka’b Bin Zuhayr
54: The Events of the Ninth Year of Migration
55: The Battle of Tabuk
56: The Deputation of Thaqif goes to Madina
57: The Prophet Mourning for his Son
58: Eradication of Idol-Worship in Arabia
59: Representatives of Najran in Madina
60: The Events of the Tenth Year of Migration
61: The Farewell Hajj
62: Islam is completed by the Appointment of Successor
63: The Events of the Eleventh Year of Migration
64: A Will which was not written
65: The Last Hours of the Prophet


51. The Famous Panegyric of Ka’b Bin Zuhayr

A young man becomes the Governor of Makkah

In the middle of the month of Zil Qa’dah of the eighth year of migration the Prophet disposed of all the booty of Hunayn at Ji’rinah. Haj days were fast approaching and it was the first year when the polytheist Arabs and the Muslims were to perform Hajj ceremonies together under the supervision of the Islamic Government of Makkah. The participation of the Prophet in these ceremonies would add to the pomp and grandeur of Hajj, and it was under his wise guidance that the true and basic propagation of Islam was to take place in that grand gathering. However, the Prophet had to discharge some duties in the centre (Madina) also, because, after three months of his leaving that place, the matters, which should have been looked after by him personally, had remained entirely unattended. Hence, after studying all the pros and cons of the matter the Prophet considered it expedient to leave Makkah after performing ‘Umrah and reach Madina as early as possible.

It was necessary that he should appoint some persons to manage the political and religious matters of the newly conquered region so that no crisis might take place in his absence and the affairs of the area might be administered properly. In view of this he appointed a forbearing and wise young man named ‘Atab bin Usayd, who was not yet more than twenty years old, as the Governor of Makkah on a monthly salary of one dirham. Thus by entrusting the Governorship of Makkah to a young man, who was newly converted to Islam, and by preferring him to many old persons, he removed the barrier of groundless fears and proved it practically that acquisition of public offices depends solely on capability, and young age should not prevent a person from attaining to highest public position and offices. The Governor of Makkah addressed a big gathering and said to them:

“The Prophet has fixed my salary and in view of this I don’t stand in need of any gift or assistance from you”.616

Another good selection made by the Prophet was that he appointed Mu’az bin Jabal to teach the Qur’an and the ordinances of Islam to the people. He was distinguished amongst the companions of the Prophet for his knowledge of the Holy Qur’an, jurisprudence, and the commands of Islam. When the Prophet deputed him to Yemen in the capacity of a judge, he asked him:

“On what will you rely for resolving the differences”.

To this he replied:

“On the Book of Allah, the Qur’an”.

The Prophet said:

“If nothing specific is found in the Book of Allah on the point at issue, on what basis will you give the judgment?”

He replied:

“On the basis of the judgments of the Prophet of Allah, for I have observed your judgments in different matters and have committed them to memory. If there crops up a matter, which is similar to the one in which you have given a verdict, I shall make use of it and give judgment accordingly”.

The Prophet asked for the third time:

“What course will you adopt when a problem crops up about which there is nothing specific either in the Book of Allah or in my judgments?”

He replied:

“In such cases I shall resort to Ijtihad (process of deducing Islamic laws) and give a decision on the basis of the Holy Qur’an and your traditions with equity and justice”.

The Prophet then said:

“Thanked be Allah that He has enabled His Prophet to choose for the administration of justice a person, whose actions are commensurate with His Will”.[617]

Story of Kab’ Bin Zuhayr Bin Abi Sulma

Zuhayr bin Abi Sulma was one of the poets of the Age of Ignorance who had written one of the seven Mu’allaqat i.e. the masterpieces of poetry, which remained suspended on the walls of the Ka’bah for a long time before the revelation of the Qur’an, and were a source of pride and glory in the literature of the Arab world. He died before the commencement of the Prophet hood of the Prophet, leaving behind two sons named Buhayr and Ka’b. Buhayr was a faithful supporter of the Prophet but Ka’b was considered to be one of his ruthless enemies. As he was endowed with a strong inherited talent (i.e. poetry) he calumniated and abused the Prophet in his verses and instigated the people to rise against Islam.

The Prophet arrived in Madina on the 24th of Zil Qa’dah. Buhayr, the brother of Ka’b had accompanied the Prophet during the conquest of Makkah and the siege of Ta’if as well as at the time of his return to Madina. He observed that the Prophet had threatened with death some poets, who were scurrilous like his brother, and who instigated people to rise against Islam, and had declared their blood to be lawful and eventually one of them had been killed, and two others had fled to some unknown destination.

Buhayr wrote a letter to his brother Ka’b informing him of the situation and in the end of the letter mentioned, as a gesture of goodwill, that if he remained inimical towards the Prophet he would lose his life, but it he came to the Prophet and expressed regret for his activities he would be pardoned because the Prophet used to accept the repentance and regret of the wrongdoers and pardoned them.

Ka’b who had full confidence in his brother came to Madina. When he arrived in the Masjidun Nabi, the Prophet was ready to offer morning prayers. Ka’b offered prayers for the first time along with the Prophet. Then he went and sat by his side and placing his own hand on his, said:

“O Prophet of Allah! Ka’b is very much ashamed and regretful for his doings and has come now to embrace Islam. Will you accept his repentance if he comes before you personally?”

The Prophet replied in the affirmative. Thereupon, Ka’b declared:

“I myself am Ka’b bin Zuhayr”.

In order to make amends for the past calumnies and slanders Ka’b had already composed an eloquent panegyric in praise of the Prophet.618 He recited it in the mosque before the Prophet and his companions. This marvelous panegyric is the masterpiece amongst the panegyrics of Ka’b. Since the day it was recited before the Prophet, the Muslims have been memorizing and publishing it among others. The Muslim scholars have also written commentaries on it. This panegyric has been written in Lamiyah form619 and consists of fifty-eight verses.

Like the poets of the Age of Ignorance who began their panegyrics by addressing their beloved or by mentioning the ruined monuments, he begins the panegyric by remembering his cousin and beloved Sa’d. When he reaches the stage of repentance for his past bad deeds he says;

“I was informed that the Prophet of Allah had threatened me, when what is desired from him is pardon and forgiveness”. And then he says; “The Prophet is a “Luminous candle” under whose radiation the people receive guidance direct, and he is a “naked sword” of Allah which is always victorious”

Grief mingled with Joy

In the end of 8 A.H. the Prophet lost his eldest daughter Zaynab. She had been married to her maternal aunt’s son, Abul ‘As, before the Prophethood of the Prophet and had declared her belief in her father immediately after his Prophethood. However, her husband continued to remain a polytheist and participated in the Battle of Badr against Islam and was taken prisoner. The Prophet released him on the condition that he would send Zaynab to Madina. Abul ‘As kept his promise and sent her to Madina but the chiefs of Quraysh deputed someone to bring her back from half way. The man so appointed managed to reach near the camel-litter of Zaynab on the way and plunged his spear into the litter. Due to excessive fear the unprotected daughter of the Prophet had a miscarriage on the way. She did not, however, give up the idea of going to Madina and reached there in an ailing condition. She spent the remaining part of her life as an invalid and breathed her last in the end of 8 A.H.

This grief turned into joy, because in the end of the same year the Prophet was favored with a son by Marya (a slave-girl whom the Muqawqis, the Ruler of Egypt had presented to the Prophet) and he named him Ibrahim. When the mid-wife (Salma) gave the good news to the Prophet that Allah had granted him a son he gave her a valuable present. On the seventh day he sacrificed a sheep to perform the aqiqah620 ceremony, of the child, and cut the child’s hair and gave silver of an equivalent weight in the path of Allah.

Notes:

616. Seerah-i Ibn Hisham. vol. II, page 500.

617. Tabaqat, vol. II, page 347.

618. Seerah-i Halabi vol. III, page 242.

619. Every verse ends with the Arabic letter Lam i.e. L.

620. Shaving the hair of the head.

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